The English language classifies words based on parts of speech. Parts of speech explain not the definition of the word, but how the word is used. Words can be classified as different parts of speech in different sentences.
The most common parts of speech that people think of first are the noun, the verb, the adjective and the adverb. However there are 4 more parts of speech in our language. They are pronoun, preposition, the conjunction and the interjection.
I will give examples and the proper usage of each part of speech:
The noun is defined as the name of a person, place, thing, or idea. There are Proper Nouns and Common Nouns. Proper nouns name a specific person, place or thing and is usually capitalized. Examples of Proper Nouns are: Mrs. Smith, The Rose Garden, or Washington High School. Common nouns are the names of general items and are not capitalized unless they are the first word in a Sentence. Examples are school, house, child, girl, store and so forth.
Verbs provide the action in sentences. They tell what the nouns are doing. The easiest and most common verbs are the action verbs. The girl (noun) danced (verb). There are other forms of verbs that are beyond the scope of this article.
The adjectives job is to describe the noun. Adjectives are usually pretty close to the noun so they are quite easy to find. Examples are: red rose (red is the adjective that describes the noun-rose), pretty vase (pretty is the adjective that describes the noun-vase)
The adverbs job is to modify the verb. They are often difficult to find. Adverbs tell us where, when, how, why, to what extent, and under what conditions something happens. Examples are: I can see clearly now. (Answers the question how do I see) The lady quickly made the dress. (Answers the question when she made the dress-Verb is made and quickly is the adverb).
Almost every sentence in our language uses these four parts of speech.
Pronouns stand in for nouns. In place of the girl you may use the pronoun she. He can be used in place of Mr. Smith. There are many types of pronouns.
A preposition links nouns, pronouns and phrases to other words in a sentence.
Conjunctions can be used to link words, phrases and clauses.
An interjection is a word added to a sentence to convey emotion; it is usually followed by an exclamation mark.
The parts of speech are the noun, verb, adverb and adjective. Followed by the pronoun, preposition, conjunction, and injection.